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"Learning is more effective when it is an active rather than a passive process."

— Kurt Lewin from Field Theory in Social Science, 1951



Lewin, a German American psychologist from the early 1900s, suggested that neither nature nor nurture alone shapes an individual; rather, it is the interaction of both Lewin (1936) developed the formula B = f (P, E), in which behavior is a function of the interactions between the person and the environment. The roots of Lewin’s research were based in Gestalt Theory and he posited that “behavior is determined by an individual’s situation and individuals can behave differently according to the way in which tensions between perceptions of the self and of the environment were worked through” Coghlan, D., & Claus, J. (2005). Kurt Lewin on re-education: Foundations for action research. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 41(4), 444-457. / Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill /

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